Fail2ban scans log files (e.g. /var/log/apache/error_log) and bans IPs that show the malicious signs -- too many password failures, seeking for exploits, etc. Generally Fail2Ban is then used to update firewall rules to reject the IP addresses for a specified amount of time...
Fail2ban vs tallow opinions
It's a completely separate program from tallow, and has none of the features in common.
win2ban is a Fail2ban implementation for Windows systems. It is a packaging of Fail2ban, Python, Cygwin, Winlogbeat and many other related tools to make it a complete and ready-to-use solution for brute-force attack protection.