Vivaldi is extremely customizable, presenting a wide range of settings and built-in features designed to put the user in control. Its Chromium-based engine makes it fast and compatible with most Chrome extensions, and Vivaldi removes the code that tracks users from it.
It includes fully customizable web browser behaviors, mouse gestures and keyboard shortcuts, Quick Commands, the usual unlimited Speed Dial page, notes that can also be synchronized with the browser data, a webpage screenshot tool, a panel for displaying and managing bookmarks, history, etc, where users can also add their own web panels; the ability to edit the browser theme and toolbars by moving or removing buttons from the interface, moving the tab bar to the side or and/or the address bar to bottom of the window; powerful tab management with tab stacking, tiling and the windows panel, etc...
Vivaldi offers a built-in ad-blocker and partners with DuckDuckGo for the tracker blocker. There is also a support for blocking cookie banners https://vivaldi.com/blog/vivaldi-crumbles-cookie-dialogs-raises-privacy/ with the help of a popular extension named I don't care about cookies and Easylist Cookie List.
It's considered the spiritual successor of the original Opera browser before the complete rewrite that scrapped many of its features and options and the move of the ownership of Opera Software to a consortium of Chinese investors. Vivaldi Technologies was founded by the co-founder and former CEO of Opera, Jon Stephenson von Tetzchner, and Tatsuki Tomita.
A free and open source web browser descended from the Mozilla Application Suite. Firefox is highly extensible, with thousands of third-party add-ons available.
Firefox version 60+ (Quantum) is presently faster than Google Chrome and use less memory than Chrome. Compare to previous versions of Firefox, the Quantum version is twice as fast, promote parallelism, and has more intuitive user interface.
Brave Search is built on top of a completely independent index, and doesn’t track users, their searches, or their clicks.
Brave Search is available in beta release globally on all Brave browsers (desktop, Android, and iOS) as one of the search options alongside other search engines, and will become the default search in the Brave browser later. It is also available from any other browser.
Brave Search is different from other search engines because it uses its own index and follows different principles:
- Privacy: no tracking or profiling of users.
- User-first: the user comes first, not the advertising and data industries.
- Independence: Brave has its own search index for answering common queries privately without reliance on other providers.
- Choice: soon, options for ad-free paid search and ad-supported search. (Sometime in early 2022, Brave Search results will include paid ads (delivered, of course, in a way that protects privacy). Users with a Brave Search Premium subscription will see ad-free search results)
- Transparency: no secret methods or algorithms to bias results, and soon, community-curated open ranking models to ensure diversity and prevent algorithmic biases and outright censorship.
- Seamlessness: best-in-class integration between the browser and search without compromising privacy, from personalization to instant results as the user types.
- Openness: Brave Search will soon be available to power other search engines.
Brave Search uses its own index, but also ensures fully anonymous search, is transparent in how search results are ranked, and integrates with a privacy-preserving browser on desktop and mobile – an across-the-board combination of independence and privacy which no other provider offers.
Brave Search is also introducing the industry’s first search independence metric, displaying the ratio of results coming exclusively from Brave’s index. It is derived privately using the user’s browser as we do not build user profiles. Users can check this aggregate metric to verify the independence of their results and see how results are powered by our own index, or if third-parties are being used.
Brave Web Browser is a fast, free, secure web browser with a built-in ad blocker*, tracking and security protection, and optimized data and battery experience.
*What is Brave Ad Replacement?
Brave’s goal is to speed up the web, stop bad ads and pay publishers. One of the ways we plan to accomplish this is with ad replacements. We will also invite users to fund their wallets and to use those funds to pay the publishers of their favorite websites.
Apple Books is the single destination for all the books you love, and the ones you’re about to. Browse the Book Store, join Oprah’s new Book Club, keep track of what you’ve read and want to read, and listen to enthralling audiobooks. All in one place.
Your library, your way.
Organize your library any way you like. With collections, every one of your books is right where you want it. Create your own collections and get to them easily at any time. You can also revisit an old favorite you’ve already read in the new Finished collection.
The all-new Book Store.
Swipe from book to book to see which book covers, descriptions, and reviews catch your eye, then add the books you’re interested in to your Want to Read list. Choose from today’s bestsellers, check out lists curated by Apple Books editors, or get recommendations based on what you’ve been reading.
Listen while you work. Or play. Or drive.
Discover audiobooks read by top authors, actors, and celebrities. Transport yourself to another world during your commute or learn something new on your run.
Search the books you own. And millions more.
Now you can find just the book you’re looking for easier and faster than ever. Search through the Book Store and your personal library at the same time. You can return to your recent searches or tap a search suggestion to find something entirely new.
For night owls.
Auto-Night mode has been expanded to every section of Apple Books. It automatically switches to white-on-black text for easier reading in the dark — so you can get lost in a story without keeping anyone awake. When the light gets brighter, it switches back.
READ ANYTIME, ANYWHERE On the bus, on your break, in your bed—never be without something to read. The Kindle app puts millions of books, magazines, newspapers, comics, and manga at your fingertips.
FIND YOUR NEXT GREAT READ
Find your next great read with Kindle. Choose from millions of Kindle books (including books with Audible narration), magazines, audiobooks, and comics. Explore new releases, Amazon Charts best sellers, and titles across genres like romance, science fiction, children’s books, self-help, religion, nonfiction, and more—and try any book with a sample in the app before you buy on Amazon.com
Kindle Unlimited members can enjoy unlimited reading and listening, with the freedom to explore over 1 million titles, thousands of audiobooks, and current magazines.
Thousands of books, magazines, comics, and more included with Amazon Prime.
GO BEYOND PAPER Turn your phone or tablet into a book with the Kindle app—so you can read anytime, anywhere. Explore these reading features in the Kindle app:
Read your way. Customize your text size, font type, margins, text alignment, and orientation (portrait or landscape)—and choose whether to turn pages from left to right or continuously scroll. Read comfortably day and night with adjustable brightness and background colors. Go to the Aa menu in your book to get started.
Look up words, people, and places while you read. Breeze through words you don’t know and characters you can’t remember with the built-in dictionary, X-Ray, Wikipedia lookup, instant translations, and search within your book. Simply tap and hold a word to view its definition, or follow links to Google and Wikipedia to get more information.
Track your reading progress. See what percent of the book you’ve read, real page numbers (for most top titles), and how much time you have left in the chapter or book based on your actual reading speed.
Bookmark places you want to revisit, and make highlights and take notes throughout your book. Open My Notebook to see all your notes in the same place.
Hop, skim, and jump with Page Flip. Flip between pages or get a bird’s-eye view of your book with Page Flip—don’t worry, we’ll save your place.
Zoom in on high-definition color images in Kindle books, magazines, comics, and manga.
Sync your books across devices. When you’re reading a book, the Kindle app will automatically sync where you left off—along with any bookmarks, highlights, or notes—so you can start reading on one device and pick up where you left off on another.
"Standard Ebooks is a volunteer-driven effort to produce a collection of high quality, carefully formatted, accessible, open source, and free public domain ebooks that meet or exceed the quality of commercially produced ebooks. The text and cover art in our ebooks is already believed to be in the U.S. public domain, and Standard Ebooks dedicates its own work to the public domain, thus releasing the entirety of each ebook file into the public domain. All the ebooks we produce are distributed free of cost and free of U.S. copyright restrictions.
Standard Ebooks is organized as a “low-profit L.L.C.,” or “L3C,” a kind of legal entity that blends the charitable focus of a traditional not-for-profit with the ease of organization and maintenance of a regular L.L.C. Our only source of income is donations from readers like you."
Avira Browser Safety is a FREE browser extension for Chrome and Firefox that blocks infected websites, protects your privacy and finds you the best deals for what you're shopping for
Browser Guard helps speed up your web browsing experience by blocking ads, scams, and trackers. Download free for Chrome and Firefox.
188.8.131.52 from CloudFlare is the fast and private way to browse the Internet. It is a public DNS resolver, but unlike most DNS resolvers, 184.108.40.206 is not selling user data to advertisers. The implementation of 220.127.116.11 makes it the fastest resolver out there.
Accompanying mobile apps provide easy access to WARP+ VPN, extending privacy and optimization features to all internet activity, not just DNS.
Security Our secure VPN sends your internet traffic through an encrypted VPN tunnel, so your passwords and confidential data stay safe, even over public or untrusted Internet connections.
Privacy Keep your browsing history private. As a Swiss VPN provider, we do not log user activity or share data with third parties. Our anonymous VPN service enables Internet without surveillance.
Freedom We created Proton VPN to protect the journalists and activists who use Proton Mail. Proton VPN breaks down the barriers of Internet censorship, allowing you to access any website or content.
Internet security for everyone Our goal is to make online privacy accessible to all. To do this, we have focused on making the advanced security technology in Proton VPN effortless to use and freely available.
Free VPN We believe privacy and security are fundamental human rights, so we also provide a free version of Proton VPN to the public. Unlike other free VPNs, there are no catches. We don't serve ads or secretly sell your browsing history. Proton VPN Free is subsidized by Proton VPN paid users. If you would like to support online privacy, please consider upgrading to a paid plan for faster speeds and more features.
Easy to Use The best security tools in the world will only protect you if used correctly and consistently. We have extensively simplified the Proton VPN interface to make it as intuitive as possible – so you can stay protected every day, hassle free.
Fast VPN Speeds A 10 Gbps server network combined with our unique suite of VPN Accelerator technologies can improve speeds by over 400%. The advanced network TCP flow control algorithm we utilize provides unparalleled performance and connection stability.
Multi-Platform Support Proton VPN is available on all your devices, including PCs, Macs, smartphones, and even routers. A secure Internet connection that you can trust is essential to maintaining your privacy on your laptop at home, your mobile device on the road, or your workstation at the office. Proton VPN has native apps for Windows, macOS, Linux, Chromebook, Android, Android TV and iOS/iPadOS.
Stream from anywhere Proton VPN unblocks a wide selection of popular online media services, allowing you to access your favorite streaming content from anywhere in the world as if you were at home. Our fast server network and unique VPN Accelerator technology also ensure your experience is smooth and buffering-free.
VPN Accelerator VPN Accelerator is a set of technologies unique to Proton VPN that can increase your VPN speeds by over 400%. By overcoming CPU limitations that affect how VPN protocols are processed, using advanced networking techniques to reduce latency, and redesigning VPN protocols themselves to reduce inefficiencies in their code, VPN Accelerator can dramatically increase speed performance.
The Internet Archive is building a digital library of Internet sites and other cultural artifacts in digital form. Like a paper library, it provides free access to researchers, historians, scholars, the print disabled, and the general public. Archive's mission is to provide Universal Access to All Knowledge.
Anyone with a free account can upload media to the Internet Archive.
Browse through over 150 billion web pages archived from 1996 to a few months ago.
The Internet Archive is a non-profit online-application that was founded to build an Internet library. Its purposes include offering permanent access for researchers, historians, scholars, people with disabilities, and the general public to historical collections that exist in digital format. The Internet Archive includes texts, audio, moving images, and software as well as archived web pages in our collections, and provides specialized services for adaptive reading and information access for the blind and other persons with disabilities.
Use the Chrome and the Firefox extension to automatically replace 404 error pages with archived versions of websites.
Online social photo and short video sharing community. Flickr helps you organize that huge mass of photos you have and offers a way for you, your friends and family to tell stories about them.
Google Scholar is a freely accessible web search engine that indexes the full text of scholarly literature across an array of publishing formats and disciplines. Released in beta in November 2004, the Google Scholar index includes most peer-reviewed online journals of Europe and America's largest scholarly publishers, plus scholarly books other non-peer reviewed journals.
Openverse is a tool that allows openly licensed and public domain works to be discovered and used by everyone.
Openverse searches across more than 300 million images from open APIs and the Common Crawl dataset. It goes beyond simple search to aggregate results across multiple public repositories into a single catalog, and facilitates reuse through features like machine-generated tags and one-click attribution.
Currently Openverse only searches images and audio, with search for video provided through External Sources. But we plan to add additional media types such as open texts and 3D models, with the ultimate goal of providing access to the estimated 2.5 billion CC licensed and public domain works on the web. All of our code is open source (Openverse frontend, Openverse API, Openverse Catalog) and we welcome community contribution. You can see what we’re currently working on.
Openverse is the successor to CC Search which was launched by Creative Commons in 2019, after its migration to WordPress in 2021. You can read more about this transition in the official announcements from Creative Commons and WordPress. We remain committed to our goal of tackling discoverability and accessibility of open access media.
Citation Machine automatically generates citations in MLA, APA, Chicago, Turabian, and thousands more!
How Citation Machine Works
Citation Machine uses an easy to use 3 step process to create your citations
Choose your style: Citation Machine supports MLA, APA, Chicago, and Turabian formats
Search: Then make your selection from the list of search results
Edit and Create: Edit information and create a citation for your works cited or bibliography
CITATION MACHINE HELPS STUDENTS AND PROFESSIONAL RESEARCHERS to properly credit the information that they use. Its primary goal is to make it so easy for student researchers to cite their information sources, that there is virtually no reason not to.
Unpaywall is a free browser extension for Firefox and Chrome that gives you a link to a free PDF when you view scholarly articles.
Bitwarden is the easiest and safest way to store all of your logins and passwords while conveniently keeping them synced between all of your devices.
Password theft is a serious problem. The websites and apps that you use are under attack every day. Security breaches occur and your passwords are stolen. When you reuse the same passwords across apps and websites hackers can easily access your email, bank, and other important accounts.
Security experts recommend that you use a different, randomly generated password for every account that you create. But how do you manage all those passwords? Bitwarden makes it easy for you to create, store, and access your passwords.
Bitwarden stores all of your logins in an encrypted vault that syncs across all of your devices. Since it's fully encrypted before it ever leaves your device, only you have access to your data. Not even the team at Bitwarden can read your data, even if we wanted to. Your data is sealed with AES-256 bit encryption, salted hashing, and PBKDF2 SHA-256.
Bitwarden is 100% open source software. The source code for Bitwarden is hosted on GitHub and everyone is free to review, audit, and contribute to the Bitwarden codebase.
Google Photos is a photograph and video sharing and storage service by Google. It allows the users to store and share images and videos using the 15 GB free storage space of their Google Account or a Google One subscription. Google Photos is also able to automatically create albums and to organize images and videos thanks to an Assistant function.
Every class is on a mission. Google Classroom is mission control, designed with teachers and students to connect the class, track their progress and achieve more together. Create classes, distribute assignments, send feedback, and see everything in one place. Instant. Paperless. Easy. So students can stay organised. Everything in one place. Join the class in one click and then have all of the materials at your fingertips.
Start a conversation. Communicate privately with your teacher or ask questions to the whole class. Everything updates in real-time. Submit assignments. Attach anything to your assignments -- Google Docs, Drive files or links. You can even take a photo and attach it to your assignment.
AlternativeTo is the ultimate hub for discovering new and exciting software, no matter what platform you're on! Whether you're looking for apps for Windows, Mac, Linux, online services or mobile devices, we've got you covered!
Want to replace an app that's driving you nuts? No problem! Just tell us what app you want to replace, and we'll give you a list of awesome alternatives. You can also create personalized lists, leave and read user reviews for apps and their alternatives, discover highlighted features, vote on alternatives, check the latest tech news, and much more.
Our crowdsourced platform is fueled by people just like you who love to share their expertise, opinions, and insights, including suggestions, comments, and votes, making it a dynamic and ever-evolving resource for finding the best software. Think of it as a constantly updated source of expert opinions on the best alternatives to the software you're not happy with.
So whether you're a tech guru, a casual user, or just someone who loves discovering new apps, AlternativeTo has something for everyone. Come join our community and let's find some amazing software together!
Zoom is a video communication company that provides remote conferencing services that combines video conferencing, online meetings, chat, and mobile collaboration.
Zoom offers a way to start or join a 100-person meeting face-to-face video, screen sharing and instant messaging
Key Features: --Best video meeting quality --Best screen sharing quality --Screen share directly from your device --Screen share photos, web, and Dropbox or Box files --Screen share apps via iOS AirPlay --Co-annotate during screen sharing --Real-time whiteboard collaboration --Send group text, images, and audio files from mobile and desktop --Contact availability status --Easily invite phone, email, or company contacts --Join as interactive participant or view-only webinar attendee --Works over WiFi, 4G/LTE, and 3G networks --Safe driving mode while on the road --Connect with anyone on iPad, iPhone, other mobile devices, Windows, Mac, Zoom Rooms, H.323/SIP room systems, and telephones
Easily find more sites like those you like. Similar Sites helps you find related sites and alternatives based on community recommendations and computer analysis.
Xodo is the ultimate cross-platform PDF viewer and annotator. And it’s 100% free.
• Bookmark PDF pages for future reference • Night Mode for comfortable PDF reading in dark environments • Tabs allow you to quickly work across multiple PDF documents • Crop pages to fit content precisely on small screens • Reflow reading mode shows the PDF text at a size of your choosing • A PDF table of contents allows you to jump chapters and sections • Printing • Full screen mode • Continuous vertical scrolling while viewing in single page, two pages, and cover page modes • Support for Samsung Multi Window • Full text search with navigable, detailed list of results, page rotation, high levels of zoom, and more
PDF Annotator and Editor • Draw and type directly on PDFs • Highlight, underline and strikeout text • Add arrows, circles, lines and more • See all annotations at a glance with the annotation summary, and just tap one to navigate to it • Scroll and turn pages by using two fingers while you annotate • Merge and split PDFs; rotate pages • Optimized for SPen and other select styluses • Thumbnail browser for deleting pages, changing page order, and inserting blank pages
Sign & Fill PDF Forms
• Fill out, save, and send PDF forms • Sign a document by hand, and save your signature for later reuse
Convert & Create
• Use your camera to scan a page, or open an existing image to create a new PDF (tif, jpeg, gif, png) • Create new blank PDFs and use Xodo to take notes
Dropbox & Google Drive Sync
• Auto-sync annotations back to Dropbox or Google Drive
• Rename, copy, move, or delete docs and folders with Xodo’s built-in file manager • Recent files can be quickly accessed, and will automatically open to the last page visited • Grid view shows thumbnail previews of PDFs and easy access to file details
Annotate PDFs with others
• Add your PDF to Xodo Connect and invite people to view and annotate online in real time
GIMP is a freely distributed program for such tasks as photo retouching, image composition and image authoring. It can be used as a simple paint program, an expert quality photo retouching program, an online batch processing system, a mass production image renderer, an image format converter, and more.
With Google Calendar, its easy to keep track of all your lifes important events in one place. You can add events and send invitations effortlessly, share your schedule with friends and family, and search for events you might enjoy.
Microsoft To-Do is a simple and intelligent to-do list that makes it easy to plan your day. Whether it's for work, school or home, To-Do will help you increase your productivity and decrease your stress levels. It combines intelligent technology and beautiful design to empower you to create a simple daily workflow. Organize your day with To-Do's smart Suggestions and complete the most important tasks or chores you need to get done, every day. To-Do syncs between your phone and computer, so you can access your to-dos from school, the office, or the grocery store or even while you're traveling around the world.
You can quickly add, organize and schedule your to-dos while you're on the go. With important to-dos that you really shouldn't forget you can add reminders and due dates—we'll remember them for you. And if you have to-dos that you need to tick off on a daily, weekly or yearly basis you can set up recurring due dates to remind you each and every time.
What areas of your life do you want to be more productive in? You can have a color-coded list for each. Now you can quickly add your homework to one list, your groceries to another, your packing list, your work projects and your home DIY projects to yet more lists. You can create as many lists as fits your lifestyle. And if you follow a productivity system such as GTD (David Allen's Getting Things Done Methodology) then you can create a Someday list or a Follow-up list. To-Do is here for you, whether your goals are for this week or in 5 years time.
Apache OpenOffice is a leading open-source office suite that offers free applications for word processing, spreadsheet, presentations, graphics, databases and more. All data is stored in an open standard format, though Open Office can also read and write files from other common office software.
Intuitive screenshots baked right into the browser. Capture, save and share screenshots as you browse the Web using Firefox.
Get Started Select the Screenshots icon from the page actions menu in the address bar, and the Screenshots menu will appear on top of your browser window.
Capture a Region Click and drag to select the area you want to capture. Or just hover and click — Screenshots will select the area for you. Like what you see? Select Save to access your screenshot online or the down arrow button to download it to your computer.
Capture a Page Use the buttons in the upper right to capture full pages. The Save Visible button will capture the area you can view without scrolling, and Save Full Page will capture everything on the page.
Download or Copy Take your best shot. Screenshots lets you download your selection or copy it right to your clipboard.
DuckDuckGo is an alternative search engine that has rich features, respects your privacy, and is built from free/open-source software.
• Zero-click Info - Useful information above the links. • More Privacy - We do not track you. • Goodies - Instant answers, !bangs & settings. • Less Spam - We remove sites with just ads.
Black Menu for Google gives you quick access to your favorite Google services with a convenient drop-down menu that lets you use Search, Google+, Translate, and many others without leaving the page you’re on. Hover on menu items to get a small windowed preview or click the shortcuts to open them in a new tab. Google Search. Quickly search the web or switch tabs to search for images, books, news, etc.—all within the mini window. Google+. Share the current page, or check your latest Google notifications. Navigate all of Google+ as you would on a mobile device. Google Translate. Type or paste text into the box to get a quick translation for that comment you received in a foreign language. View your translate history and save your favorite ones. Google Maps. Find the next restaurant to try out by using the mini map that has search, Street View, and layers for satellite, traffic, public transport and cycling. YouTube. Watch popular videos or those recommended to you. Do a search and filter the results to find that one video you wanted to share. Sign in to find useful shortcuts at the bottom.
More. Select from 30+ more Google services that you can add to Black Menu or find shortcuts to common (and obscure) Google websites like Google Contacts, Google Groups, Google Art Project, Google Follow Your World and 300+ more!
This extension adds a browser button for easy access to Google Scholar from any web page. Click the Scholar button to:
Find full text on the web or in your university library. Select the title of the paper on the page you're reading, and click the Scholar button to find it.
Transfer your query from web search to Scholar. Press the Scholar button to see top three results; click "full screen" in the lower left of the popup to see them all.
Format references in widely used citation styles. Press the quote button in the popup to see a formatted reference and copy it into the paper you're writing.
Library links work best when you're on campus. To configure them for off-campus use, visit Google Scholar Settings (you may need to login with your library password or to set up your browser to use a library proxy; please visit your library's website or ask a local librarian for assistance).
To search the US case law, click the gear icon at the bottom of the popup, and configure your preferred collection in Google Scholar Settings.
PrintFriendly cleans and formats web pages for perfect print experience. PrintFriendly removes Ads, Navigation and web page junk, so you save paper and ink when you print. It's free and easy to use. Perfect to use at home, the office, or whenever you need to print a web page.
Notes by Firefox is a simple, secure notepad app that syncs with Firefox. To use Notes, you’ll need a Firefox Account, and the free Notes browser extension from Firefox Test Pilot.
- A simple notepad to create a to-do list, take a memo, or capture a brilliant idea.
- Notes automatically sync between your Android device and Firefox for desktop. Read, edit, or delete notes on the go.
- Notes are synced with end-to-end encryption using your Firefox Account.
LibreOffice is a free and open-source office suite that is compatible with other major office suites, and is available on all operating systems. It is an independently-developed version of the OpenOffice.org suite.
The office suite includes:
LibreOffice - Writer, a word processor with similar functionality and file support to Microsoft Word . It has extensive WYSIWYG word processing capabilities, but can also be used as a basic text editor.
LibreOffice - Calc , a spreadsheet program, similar to Microsoft Excel . It has a number of unique features, including a system which automatically defines series of graphs, based on information available to the user.
LibreOffice - Draw , a vector graphics editor and diagramming tool similar to Microsoft Office Visio . It provides connectors between shapes, which are available in a range of line styles and facilitate building drawings such as flowcharts. It also includes features similar to desktop publishing software such as Scribus and Microsoft Publisher .
Google Drive is a file storage and synchronization service which enables user cloud storage, file sharing and collaborative editing.
Google Drive incorporates the Google Docs suite, a collaborative office suite of productivity applications that offers:
- Google Docs , a word processor;
- Google Sheets , a spreadsheet application;
- Google Slides , a presentation program;
- Google Drawings , a graphics application;
- Google Forms , a form designer.
Google Drive gives you access to your work from anywhere, across your Mac, PC, mobile devices and on the web. Simply download Drive on your Mac or PC to sync files from your computer to the cloud. Update a file on one device and changes are automatically saved to Drive and your other device, so you have the most up-to-date version of your files wherever you need them.
Bring your work to life : Share files or whole folders with individuals, your entire team or even customers and partners. In the Docs, Sheets and Slides editors multiple people can work on the same document at the same time
Buy what you need & grow flexibly : Start with up to 15 GB of included storage for each of your users. Need more? For as little as $4/month for 20GB, administrators can centrally purchase and manage up to 16TB (Yes, that’s 16,000 GB!) of additional storage for each user.